Mental Health: Types of Mental Illness

Mental Health - EgnUnited

What Is Mental Illness

Illness, inheritance and accident do not know the border to harm children, and any child of any social and economic class, from any nationality or religion, may suffer physical, mental or mental harm.

Mental retardation

The mental retardation observes the general performance of intelligence, which is significantly lower than moderate, and simultaneously, along with the defects in the adaptive behavior that emerged during growth. The developmental period is usually the time between birth and age 18, so failure that begins after the age of 18 is not considered mental retardation. Subjective retarded children have a significant role due to the complexity of intelligence and backwardness.

Although more than 2,000 causes of mental retardation have been reported so far, many causes of mental retardation remain unknown. Mental retardation like all disturbances has a lot of severity and weakness. Depending on how much the child’s intelligence is, his motor, behavioral, social and emotional characteristics are formed. Hence, the most important factor to be taken into consideration is the mental retardation of the intelligence factor. Based on intelligence measures, average intelligence is assumed to be 100.

Individuals whose intelligence is between 85 and 100 is in a moderate range. Individuals between the ages of 70 and 84 are boundaries, that is, on the boundary between mental retardation and moderate (lower). Those who are below this range and whose utilization is less than 70 is called mental retardation. According to the studies conducted on the level of intelligence in the mentally retarded children, these children are divided into 4 categories: mild retardation with the use of 55-50 to 70, moderate mental retardation with the use of 40-35 to 50-55, intense mental retardation with an intensity of 25-20 40-35. Deep mental retardation with less than 25-20 benefits. Mental retardation can be caused by various diseases. Here are three types of the most commonly reported illnesses that cause mental retardation.

Down syndrome

This syndrome, also called malignant syndrome, is due to chromosomal defects. These children have 21 chromosomes instead of 2 chromosomes 21. In 95% of cases, the high age of the mother causes this syndrome and in 5% of cases, the chromosomal displacement causes this syndrome. The intelligence of these children is between 40 and 50. These children are gentle, kind and kind people. Most of them look like they are and they have a passion for music.

With each other have the same apparent characteristics (the faces of these children remain like the Mongols). The symptoms of this syndrome vary from one child to another, as some of them require ongoing medical care, but others have a healthy and independent life. But all of them have mild to moderate mental retardation. The learning speed of these children is slower than other children; therefore, they should not be compared to other children.

Curtinism (Hypothyroidism)

This disorder is caused by the thyroid gland, which can be present at the child’s birth or after a normal growth period. The thyroid gland usually causes normal growth of the organs of the body, but if it occurs under extreme conditions, it prevents the growth of the organs of the body. Symptoms include short stomach, dry skin, fatigue and sleepiness, heart problems, learning disabilities, and myocardial growth, abdominal discomfort, large tongue, violent voice, and short neck.

Disorders of phenylctonuria

It is a hereditary metabolic disorder. The lack of an enzyme that results in the metabolism of phenylalanine can increase the enzyme in the body and cause damage to the nervous system. These children have no problems with their physical and physical growth. They look even more beautiful and healthy (most of them have blond and bright hair), but what matters is their mental retardation. These children have gigantic and swollen movements and have difficulty expressing speech. Their exploits are no more than 50 to 70. These children should be under the supervision of specialists and get a diet without phenylalanine, this treatment will eliminate the symptoms.

Communication disorders

Communicating with others is two-way, in a way that is both meaningful for others and the ability to understand the expression of others. Generally speaking, in order to communicate effectively with others, your child should master the language; that is, the child can express his thoughts as linguistic symbols and understand the language symbols provided by the other party. If your child has difficulty expressing and understanding the speech of others, it can be said that your child is very likely to have a communication disorder. Language disorders are divided into 4 categories.

Speech impairment

These children have difficulty with language development without mental retardation, nerve dysfunction, hearing impairment or inadequate training. These children have a good interest in communicating with others and trying to communicate with eye and hand movements. These children may have low self-confidence, depression, sore throats, sucking a finger with difficulty speaking the language. Spreading this disorder to adolescence may make the treatment harder.

Disordered speech and language

Children with this disorder learn languages ​​more slowly than their peers and their years, and they have difficulty understanding the language of others. They do not understand the simple commands, and in their conversations they have many mistakes in deleting, moving letters, and distorting the letters. Completely, these children have difficulty expressing the language and understanding of the language of others. Detection of this disorder in children may be postponed due to the attribution of these behaviors to behavioral disorders rather than communication disorders by parents and teachers.

Phonological disorder

These children or letters are deleted in words (such as hair instead of the mouse) or substitute (such as throat instead of peach) or pronounced nonsense and so-called childish talk. Detection of this disorder occurs after 3 years of age. These children do malformed speech without mental retardation, disturbance of the motor and auditory system, and the normal growth of vocal language. These children may be confused with younger children.

Tongue tie

This disorder can be caused by an accident or psychological factors, or can be routinely developed in the natural growth of language. The characteristics of these children in expressing sounds are repeated, interrupted by speaking or silencing (silent during speaking) or jumping head while talking. These children should be under the supervision of an expert in order to prevent the spread of stuttering and the natural growth of language.

behavioral disorders

Another problem in childhood is the uncontrolled behavior of the exterior. These behaviors violate the rights of others, disregard others, harm children and other adults, lethargy, and even create educational and learning problems in children. Children usually have a negative period for autonomy in their developmental period from 2 to 2.5 years old and 6 to 6.5 years old, but when this period is negative more than the age can be rooted in behavioral disorders. Behavioral disorders are divided into several categories based on their symptoms and characteristics.

Disruptive Disorder – Hyperactivity

These children have an overactive and underemphasized pattern that is more abundant and more severe than that of children with similar levels of growth. These children do not listen when they are talking to them, they have many mistakes in doing things and tasks, they can not keep their attention to doing assignments, their senses are soon thrown away, they often forget activities, lost objects that are related to doing their assignments. Their arms and legs are restless and eat on the armchair; in the situations they are waiting to sit there they leave the chair; they often go and go up and down the wall; they often talk a lot, cut off the words of others, and wait for the turn Maybe they can not behave in children This is intuitive, but what is happening in overactive children is the severity and extent of doing these behaviors that are unbearable for parents.

Conduct disorder

These children ignore the rights of others and social rules and cause the destruction of property and damage to others and animals. These children are often aggressive and lying is one of the established habits in them. These children begin to cry, scream and even begin to scoff when their needs fail. These people do not feel regret about the present situation, which makes them distressed. Not at school with their peers.

Learning disability

This term may create a mentally retarded mindset for unskilled people. Some children have problems with learning, including reading, writing, and counting. In the same way that the child needs help and guidance from others, they may be more desirable in their intellectual and practical ways than their peers. The disorder is intrinsic, but with the proper training and patience, learning more about these children can help. Learning disorders are divided into 3 categories.

Disorder reading

Children who have this disorder, with proper intelligence and sensory impairment, have difficulty reading words or understanding words, or are experiencing drowsiness. These children are dependent on learning and guidance to others. They have difficulty recalling lessons, their vocabulary is limited, and because of the repeated failures experienced, they have a negative attitude toward complex and challenging homework. Genetic, growth and environmental factors are the cause of this disorder.

Impairment in writing

Children with writing impairment, with proper intelligence and sensory impairment, have difficulty typing, typing, and writing. This disorder may be accompanied by reading disorder and disorder.


Although a child may not be able to count down and count the multiplication table, he may not understand what these numbers are. As the child grows older, the child gains an adequate understanding of the quantity of numbers. Disruption in the calculation of a particular term is a disability in math learning. Individuals with mild hearing impairments have many indications and features that experts call disordered counting syndrome.


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